|Systematic name||Zinc oxide|
|Molar mass||81.408 g/mol|
|Solubility in water||0.16 mg/100 mL (30 °C)|
|Melting point||1975 °C (Decomposes)|
|Boiling point||2360 °C|
|Viscosity||1.05 cP at 52°C|
|Molecular shape||Hexagonal and Cubic|
|MSDS||Material safety data sheet|
|Main hazards||Health, Fire, Respiratory, and Chemical|
|Flash point||1,436 °C (2,617 °F; 1,709 K)|
|Other anions||Zinc sulfide|
|Other cations||Cadmium oxide|
|Related ?||Zinc telluride|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references
Zinc oxide, also known as calamine, is a white solid compounding the two elements, zinc and oxygen. It was first discovered when the Roman Empire used it in brass works. Over the centuries, it has evolved into a popular skin care product, acting as a moisturizer, sunscreen, or even healing wounds. Though it can come with many side effects, these occasions are rare and zinc oxide makes a very safe compound to use in every day life.
When zinc oxide and air meet, the zinc oxide absorbs the water vapor and the carbon dioxide that is in the air. After this, the zinc oxide will end up turning into zinc carbonate. When zinc oxide is heated up to a high temperature it goes through reactions in the solid state. These reactions are called calcinations. When zinc oxide is looked at through a microscope, it can be observed that zinc oxide particles are grouped together rather than being separated and spread out. Zinc oxide can react to both alkali metals and acids. If zinc oxide reacts with alkali metals or acids, the result would be a compound similar to zinc oxide. 
Zinc Oxide can be crystallized in a couple different forms. These forms are wurtzite and zincblende. Wurtzite is more of a hexagon while zincblende is similar to a cube. According to the Mohs scale, zinc oxide is considered soft with a 4.5 hardness. Zinc oxide in the wurtzite and zincblende forms are not symmetrical. This means that the crystals on one side are not identical to the opposite. The hexagon crystals of zinc oxide have a group point of around 6 millimeters in average. The surfaces, however, are flat and there is no explanation behind this visual case. 
Back when the Roman Empire was in control, zinc was considered to be a common element when it was used in the making of brass. Many centuries later, zinc was discovered in India to be a unique metal. During a smelting process, zinc oxide was made on accident. It was a white powder and many people found it helpful when their eyes felt pain. A couple hundred years later, China used this same smelting process to make brass products with large amounts of zinc. The zinc made in China were later shipped to European countries soon after China discovered this method to produce zinc. In 1789, a French chemist by the name Antoine Lavoisier added the element of zinc to the periodic table. Until more discoveries on the element were made, the idea to use zinc mixed with water and oil to paint was appealing to many. This went on until the late 1800s. 
Zinc oxide is a common ingredient in many skin products. It can be used to heal minor irritations such as burns, cuts, scratches, etc. Zinc oxide also helps make great sunblock. Zinc alone would not be any good in skincare because the zinc alone is just an ore. The ore has to be processed and oxidized in order to be mixed with the creams of sunscreens and skin care products. As mentioned before, zinc oxide was used to treat eyes centuries ago, in India. Today, zinc oxide can be used to treat dandruff, skin wounds, rashes, sun damage, and poison ivy symptoms. Zinc oxide is also great for treating acne when it is combined with similar compounds such as zinc gluconate and zinc sulfate. In these situations, the zinc oxide gets rid of the bacteria causing the acne. 
On very rare occasions, zinc oxide can cause some side effects which can be worrisome. These side effects consist of allergic reactions, drug interactions, metal fume fever, pregnancy malfunctions, and zinc toxicity. When using skin care products or sunscreen that contains zinc oxide, allergies are always, but rarely, a possibility. A burning sensation or any form of skin irritation may be felt. When consumed, the allergic reaction may be swelling of the lips or throat which causes difficulty when breathing. This can eventually lead to hives. If on chemotherapy, it is best to not consume any form of zinc oxide. The zinc oxide can make the cancer cells resistant to the cancer cells, making the cancer even more complicated. If on other medicines that that enters the bloodstream, zinc oxide may eventually stop the medicine from doing so. If the fumes of zinc oxide are inhaled, a fever can be a possible result. This fever has the dreadful symptoms of muscle weakness, large amounts of sweat, and rapid breathing which can turn into inhalation. It is important to be careful when taking zinc oxide supplements when pregnant. It is possible for the zinc oxide to harm the baby as well as affect the breast milk. Consuming too much zinc oxide can be very harmful to vital organs such as the kidney. It can also cause diarrhea and turns skin and eyes into a yellow color. Too much zinc oxide may also result in a overdose and affect the digestive system. 
- Peifer, John Chemical Properties What is Zinc Oxide?. Accessed April 20th, 2018
- Zinc Oxide Wikipedia. Accessed April 20th, 2018. Author Unknown.
- History of Zinc Oxide Zinc Oxide TCO. Accessed April 20th, 2018. Author Unknown.
- Dupree, Rachelle Zinc Oxide: Historical Uses and Modern Benefits Dermascope. Accessed April 20th, 2018.
- Perkins, Sharon Is Zinc Oxide Safe During Pregnancy? Live Strong. Accessed April 20th, 2018.