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X-ray crystallography

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SIBYLS X-Ray Crystallography and SAXS are getting controlled by one of the scientists.

Within the crystal, the molecules are arranged on a regular basis. The atom in the molecule has the same position during the regular mesh structure (three-dimensional lattice) and is fulfilling. When Von Laue investigated with X-rays at the incident X-ray diffraction beam direction and the other in the direction of X-rays are detected. The large number of photographic plates and X-ray diffraction of the diffraction spots creates big picture we can see with our eyes. Interpretation of the position and intensity of two diffraction spots of cubic lattice in determining if, furthermore, three-dimensional structure of molecules can be determined. In 1912, German physicist Von Laue used X-ray diffraction after the discovery of inorganic compounds, mainly for mineral analysis was conducted to determine compounds. The interpretation of organic compounds determined by three-dimensional structure of the molecule has reached becoming. The chemical structure of penicillin G was not able to determine the certain chemicals in the compound. Currently, the structure of many new compounds have been determined in this way. Unlike the low molecular weight compounds, polymers have been quite difficult to interpret the accumulated knowledge requires a long gyeonghamgwa protein structures one can take years to be interpreted.[1][2][3]

Material Science

Crystall model

Crystals are solids possess pretty, good looking, faces and sharp edges. The angles on each crystal possess the different results. The result of a crystalline substance are always constant. The each angle has the different equations. Haüy and others scientists found out that crystals are made of many tiny atoms that are stacked in a 3-dimensional array. The crystal has the 3-dimensional sizes on outside and inside. These pieces we are looking that are 3-dimensional called unit cell.[4] The crystal structure of protein was discovered to science field around 1950s. The crystallization surfaced the in scientific field and scientists discovered the molecule structure of protein. The X-ray crystallography is used by the Brigg's law that indicates the each scientific equations on the molecules and atoms. [2]

History

The reflections of the rays calculate the atoms lattice topology.

In 1895, the scientist Roentgen discovered X-ray. He was not involved in using crystal as a x-ray. In 1912, von Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping try to use x ray by concluding crystals. They found out the x ray diffraction pattern using the crystals. This great discovery allowed scientists the ability to find out the distinctive atoms in ZNs.[1] The Universities in United States progresses in building this x-ray, so it can work smoothly. The reflection on crystals made the university look at more dynamic world with x-ray. The constant research on X-ray crystallography is progressed by big universities. The wavelength of this technique is not easy to demonstrate to normal people. The history of scientists who worked on X-ray crystallography found out the diffraction and extraction in the crystal. There is still work to be done for this research. The research on accurate molecular structures can only be found on X-ray crystallography. The designs and the looks are not quite there yet, but we can see through the X-ray and provide the molecular structures that scientists need for any of their lab work. [5] In 1962, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in physiology. They used the X-Ray Crystallography in order to find out the structure of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This was the first Nobel prize that was used by the X-Ray Crystallography to discover any structure of scientific relations. [6]

Uses

The atoms of molecules cannot be seen in visible lights. We cannot see atoms in visible lights is the size of the object has to be half of wavelength of the light. The wavelength of X-Ray determines all the visibility. The form of electromagnetic radiation is the only way to see molecules of the object. X-ray possesses the electromagnetic radiation.[3]

X-ray diffraction to determine the crystal structure is yet to discover. The crystal structure from the diffraction intensity obtains value of the argument how to see the visible evidence in X-ray. To describe the distribution of electron density obtained by sequencing atoms to determine the molecular structure. Protein structure can be seen at the atomic level and also one of the terms important structures. The development of crystallization techniques, powerful synchrotron radiation became available in the X-ray source that, as the image plate detection system was able to see the results, even in small crystals in a short time was able to measure. The structural biology is one of the major research techniques.[7]<[8]

Media

Summary: Georgina Ferry, the science writer, explains the importance and history of X-ray crystallography in the past and present.

Summary: The professor of Yale University is teaching about X-Ray Diffraction.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 UCLA. X-Ray Crystallography. X-Ray Crystallography. ucla.edu. Accessed in January 19, 2012 .
  2. 2.0 2.1 Unknown author. X-Ray Crystallography. wikipedia. Accessed in January 19, 2012 .
  3. 3.0 3.1 Unknown author. X-ray Crystallography. stolaf.edu. Accessed in January 29, 2012.
  4. Oklahoma. X-Ray Crystallography. Chemical Crystallography Lab. xrayweb.chem.ou.edu. Accessed in January 19, 2012 .
  5. ruppweb. Crystallography101. X-Ray Crystallography. ruppweb.org. Accessed in January 19, 2012 .
  6. chemheritage. Biomolecules. X-Ray Crystallography. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Accessed in January 19, 2012 .
  7. Unknown author. Introduction to X-ray Diffraction. X-Ray. MRL. Accessed in January 30, 2012 .
  8. Unknown author. Some Background about X-Ray Diffraction. X-Ray. geosci.ipfw.edu. Accessed in January 30, 2012 .