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Sarin

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Sarin
Sarin 3D.pngSarin 2D.png
General
Systematic name (RS)-Propan-2-yl methylphosphonofluoridate
Other names

O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate;
Phosphonofluoridic acid, P-methyl-,
1-methylethyl ester;
GB;
IMPF;

Molecular formula C4H10FO2P
SMILES CC(C)OP(=O)(C)F
Molar mass Molar mass::140.09 g/mol
Appearance Clear colorless liquid
Odorless in pure form
CAS number CAS number::107-44-8
Properties
Density and phase [[Density::1.0887 g/cm³ at 25 °C

1.102 g/cm³ at 20 °C]], Liquid

Solubility in water miscible
Melting point Melting point::-56°C
Boiling point Boiling point::158°C
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards Inhilation, skin contact,
eye contact, consumtion
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

1
4
1
Related compounds
Related compounds Cyanide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Sarin, also known as Nerve Gas, is an extremely dangerous chemical weapon. It is a nerve agent that attacks the nervous system, and causes the nerves to shut down and the muscles and organs in the body to relax. Sarin was originally named "Mustard Gas" by the original creators, the Germans. Sarin is also known as GB. Sarin was named for the four men who discovered its exsistance: Gerhard Schrader, Ambros, Rudriger and Van der Linde. They took the first letter from Schrader, Ambros, Rudruger, and the took the second and third letter from Linde to make S-A-R-IN. Sarin was a pesticide when it was first introduced, but later was changed into a weapon of mass murder and genocide. After WWII and several terrorist attacks production of most or all sarin in the U.S. It was later labeled a weapon of mass destruction and all sources of it ordered to be destroyed.[1]

Properties

Everything about Sarin is man-made,and does not occur naturally. It was created solely in a lab. Sarin has a molecular mass of 140.09 g/mol and a molecular formula: C4H10FO2P. It has a boiling point of 158°C and a melting point of -56°C. Sarin is 500 times more toxic than cyanide, which is life threatening in large amounts (a large amount being the size of a pill). The molar mass of Sarin is 140.09 grams per mole. It's solubility in water is miscible. It is a completely colorless liquid and completely odorless. Even as a vapor it is odorless and colorless. It has a very short shelf life of weeks to a few months. However, the shelf life of Sarin can be lengthened with the effects of some precursors. [2]]

Sarin can last some time after being released. It can be mixed with water, food, clothes, and air. It has been shown that after 30 minutes of contact with Sarin, clothing can actually release the deadly compound. The Sarin can be mixed in water or put it in food to poison the victim. [3]

Occurrences

Sarin is not a natural occurring substance, but is made in a lab. It is estimated that the Germans produced about 10 tons of Sarin before the Nazis were defeated. [4] Sarin was used and created during World War II by the Germans. This new chemical could have very easily won the Germans very much land and maybe the war if they had used it. Although it was used during the war, the use of Sarin was eventually discontinued. The risk was far too great for the Germans. [5]

Uses

A Russian scientist carefully handles an artillery shell filled with Nerve Gas.

Sarin is used as an agent to kill. It was developed by the Germans in World War II, it was known as mustard gas. Contact with the Sarin produced a number of health issues. Among the problems caused are: Coma, Death, Seizures, Fever, and Paralysis. Actually almost every sign of sickness can appear when having been exposed to Sarin. The most common however is death. [6] The Germans stopped using Sarin in WWII. While the Sarin could have given them a quick path to victory, the decided that the risk was too great. America had air superiority and they were afraid that continued use of sarin would result in American air raids over German cities. [7] The original use of Sarin was as an Insecticide. When the Germans discovered the deadly ability of it, however, they began using it for practical warfare. As stated before, Sarin is a nerve agent. It works by calming the muscles to a degree where they no longer allow proper breathing and organ functions. For several years, Sarin was used in attacks from Iraq and Iran in a war amongst each other. [8]

Terrorist Attacks and Tragedies

A wanted poster showing the faces of the remaining uncaptured culprits in the Tokyo sarin gas attacks.

In 1995, in Tokyo, Japan, a group of Japanese people launched a Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. It was a premeditated and well thought out attack. They made their own home-brew sarin and filled five bags with it. Five different members, each with one bag of the chemical boarded five different trains. Once they were on the train and it was moving they ripped open the bags and spilled the liquid on the ground. It evaporated into highly dangerous nerve gas. The end results of the incident were: 12 deaths, about 500 injuries, and temporary blindness for thousands of people. The same group also used sarin in a different attack on Matsumoto, Japan. In that attack, 7 were killed and 144 were injured. Of the five who attacked the Tokyo subway, two have been captured, while the other three are still on the loose. [9] In 2004, a group of Iraqi Insurgents exploded a bomb that was supposed to release Sarin. However, due to unknown reasons, the bomb released only tiny amounts of Sarin, only two soldiers were treated from effects. Another sarin incident occurred in 1953. A member of the British Royal Air Force named Ronald George Maddison was killed by Sarin in an experiment in which he was exposed to Nerve Gas for 45 minutes. The point of the experiment was to cure the common cold. He died and an investigation was held. The result was that he had been unlawfully tested on and his father was paid money for a funeral. [10]

References