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Roentgenium

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Roentgenium
Roentgenium
General Info
Atomic Symbol Atomic symbol::Rg
Atomic Number Atomic number::111
Atomic Weight Atomic weight::272 g/mol
Chemical series Transition metal
Appearance Unknown
Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14, 6d9, 7s2,
Electrons per shell 2,8,18,32,32,18,2
Electron shell roentgenium.png
CAS number CAS number::54386-24-2
Physical properties
Phase Metal
Density Density::Unknown g/ml
Melting point Melting point::Unknown
Boiling point Boiling point::Unknown
Isotopes of Roentgenium
iso NA half-life DT DE (MeV) DP
272Rg is stable with neutrons.
All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.

Roentgenium is a chemical element that was discovered in 1994 by two scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany. The name "Roentgenium" was given after the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. It was not officially accepted until 1994 when they officially accepted it. Roentgenium is a radioactive material that cannot be naturally found on any part of the earth at all. It was discovered by colliding the two elements Copper and Bismuth together. It is a transition metal that is highly radioactive, and will disappear in 0.5 seconds after it forms.

Properties

Roentgenium is radioactive which makes it harmful to us humans, but don't worry because it is a synthetic radioactive element which means it was created in a particle collider for only a minute period of time. It is so radioactive that it is part of a small group of other atoms that are also radioactive. [1] The half-life of roentgenium is so short that it only lasts for 15 milliseconds before it decays into meitnerium. It doesn't appear naturally in nature. It has to be artificially recreated and bombarded with other particles to artificially create the element that is known as roentgenium. [2]

Roentgenium is in the form of a solid metal. It is classified as a "transition metal" which are any metallic elements occupying a central block which are Groups IVB–VIII, IB, and IIB, or 4–12 in the periodic table. Elements which are classified as transition metals have the physical characteristics of being ductile, malleable, and are good conductors of electricity and also heat. Nearly 75% of all of the elements in the periodic table are classified as actual metal. [3]

Occurrences / Synthesis

The Heavy Ion Research Laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany

Roentgenium is a radioactive material that does not occur naturally and cannot be found anywhere in any environment on earth. To make Roentgenium you need to start out with a metal target which is usually lead or bismuth (elements eighty-two and eighty-three) depending on what element you are trying to create. Then you take a lighter element like copper and bombard the element at a huge velocity with the lead or bismuth depending on what element you are trying to create. The idea is that you have to accelerate the particles very fast so that the two positively charged nuclei can come together. But not too fast because otherwise you'll have so much energy that it'll fall apart again immediately.

Roengenium has a very difficult name to pronounce. It was named after Wilhelm Röntgen the discoverer of x-rays. Wilhelm Röntgen was actually one of the first people to win a Nobel Prize. [4]

Uses

Roentgenium was discovered in a private lab by two scientists. It doesn't have many uses to this day. As of right now it is only being used in research by scientists who think this element may have potential. There are no uses for the element. It is purely for experimental purposes. [5]

Discovery and History

Photo of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

Roentgenium was discovered by S. Hofmann, V. Ninov, F. P. Hessberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, and others at 1994 in Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. The process involved the acceleration of nickle atoms to high energy levels with the use of the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI and directed onto a lead target. [6] After they bombarded the nickel atom with a bismuth atom, the element Roentgenium appeared but only lasted for 1.5 milliseconds (0.0015 seconds). Since only a small number of roentgenium elements were produced, at this point in time it's only use it to be researched scientifically. [7]

There are only seven isotopes that are known of the element: 272, 274 and 278-282. The isotope that lived the longest of them was isotope number 281 which had a half life of 22.8 seconds. In 1986, physicists that worked at the Russian Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), tried to bombard the element bismuth with the element nickel hoping that they could create element 111, but they were horribly mistaken. They failed to detect any atoms related to the element 111. But luckily in 1994, a team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfred Munzenberg at the German Geselleschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) successfully bombarded bismuth with nickle and obtained few atoms of isotope 272, which only lasted 1.5 milliseconds. [8]

Video

What is Roentgenium

References

  1. Author Unknown. Roentgenium Element Facts Chemicool. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).
  2. Author Unknown. Element Roentgenium - Rg Environmental Chemistry. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).
  3. Author Unknown. The Element Roentgenium Elemental Matter. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).
  4. Author Unknown. Roentgenium AZoM. Web. 10/23/2013 (Date-of-access).
  5. John Emsley. Roentgenium Royal Society of Chemistry. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).
  6. Author Unknown. Roentgenium WebElements. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).
  7. Steve Gagnon. The Element Roentgenium It's Elemental. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).
  8. John Emsley. Roentgenium Royal Society of Chemistry. Web. 10-9-2013 (Date-of-access).