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Psilocybin

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Psilocybin
Psilocybin-3D-spacefill (1).png500px-Psilocybn.svg (1).png
General
Systematic name [3-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]
Other names Dimethylaminoethyl, dihydrogen phosphate
Molecular formula C12H17N2O4P
SMILES

CN(C)CCc1cnc2CC=CC(OP(O)(O)=O)=c12
CN(C)CCC1=CN=C2CC=CC(OP(O)(O)=O)=C12

Molar mass Molar mass::284.25 g/mol
CAS number CAS number::520-52-5
Properties
Solubility

soluble in water
soluble in methanol
slightly soluble in ethanol
negligible in chloroform
negligible in benzenesoluble

Melting point Melting point::228°C
Boiling point Boiling point::523.4°C
Hazards
RTECS number NM3150000
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Psilocybin is a compound that is found in over 200 different types of Psilocybin mushrooms. These mushrooms usually have long slender stems with a small to large cap with dark gills on the bottom. Psilocybin has no known hazards other than that you could become sick if you eat too many These mushrooms are usually ingested as a psychedelic drug. The effects of this drug are usually strange hallucinations to a a insightful childish imagination.

Properties

A psilocybin mushroom.

Psilocybin mushrooms are available either fresh or dried.They have long slender stems topped by caps with dark gills on the bottom.Fresh mushrooms have white or whitish-gray stems.The caps are dark brown around the edges and light brown or white in the center. Dried mushrooms are mostly golden brown with little spots of faded white.[1]

Synthesis / Occurrences

A psilocybin mushroom in a field.

Psilocybin is a natural psychedelic compound that has been found in over 200 Basidiomycota mushrooms. The majority of these mushrooms are found in Mexico, with the rest of them being found in the US and Canada, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and associated islands. In general, psilocybin mushrooms are dark-spored, gilled mushrooms that usually grow in soils rich in humus and plant debris. Although these mushrooms are found all around the world, they are mostly found in humid dark forests.[2]. Although the caps and the stems both contain the psilocybin, the caps contain most of the psychedelic compound. All different species of these psilocybin containing mushrooms have different potency. The amount of potency depends on many different things like the strain, species, and size. Oddly enough, the smaller the mushroom, the higher the potency. Cultivated mushrooms have a more reliable psilocybin content rather than the unpredictable wild grown mushrooms. The potency of the mushroom is longer kept if dried and can be kept for long periods of times while freshly stored mushrooms can lose all potency after only a few short weeks.[3].

Uses

A psilocybin mushroom

Psilocybin is mainly used as a edible drug in the form of a mushroom. It has been made known for its hallucinogen affects and its body and mental "high". Even though it is made natural from the earth and has no known side affects or health issues it is illegal to use. If you are caught using or holding these mushrooms you will be charged for possession of a Class A drug. Even though these are serious charges, people still use these on a regular basis. The reason for this is the euphoric feeling of happiness and a strong sense of joy. Although people tend to enjoy Psilocybin, there is one catch. This one catch is the chance of having a bad "trip". This bad "trip" usually ends up being in the form of an extreme nightmare.[4] Although this is mainly used in a recreational way, doctors have been studying them in order to use as a type of medicine. These medicines would be used to treat anxiety disorders, major depression, and various addictions. Psilocybin has also been known to ease the pain caused by cluster headaches, "one of the worst pain syndromes known to mankind." In a 2006 study, half of cluster headache patients reported that psilocybin negated the pain; similar results were reported for LSD.[5]

Effects

a trippy illusion

Psilocybin has obvious effects on both the physical and mental parts of the body. The effect that you receive from it depends on the amount that you take. In small amounts you usually would have hallucinations while in larger doses you take on a deep childlike thinking. The mental effects can very greatly from giving you extreme hallucinations to simply giving you a good feeling. It can also give you great paranoia, anxiety and extreme fear from nightmares. [6] Open eye hallucinations tend to The dangerous part of these hallucinations is that they seem to be so life like that people may seriously harm or injure themselves while trying to escape them. There are two types of hallucinations. Closed eye hallucinations and open eye hallucinations. Closed eye hallucinations will come as strange shapes to vivid colors,while open eye hallucinations will range from weird movement to odd visions.[7]

References

  1. Psilocybin Fast Facts National Drug Intelligence Center. Web. 1-23-2014(Date-of-access).
  2. . Variation of psilocybin and psilocin levels with repeated flushes (harvests) of mature sporocarps of Psilocybe cubensis (earle) singer ScienceDirect. Web. 1-22-2014(Date-of-access).
  3. . Indirizzo dell'autore NEW ASPECTS OF THE OCCURRENCE, CHEMISTRY AND CULTIVATION OF EUROPEAN HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS. Web. 1-22-2014(Date-of-access).
  4. Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problemsNational Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health. Web. Last used on 1/22/2014.
  5. The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders National Institutes of Health. Web. Last used on 1/22/2014.
  6. Acute psychological and physiological effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-effect study National Institutes of Health. Web. January 22, 2014. (Date-Accessed).
  7. Experimental psychiatry. V. Psilocybine, a new psychotogenic drug. National Institutes of Health. Web. January 22, 2014.