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Potassium chloride

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Potassium chloride
Potassium-chloride-unit-cell-3D-ionic.pngPotassium chloride.jpg
General
Systematic name Potassium chloride
Other names Sylvite Muriate of potash
Molecular formula KCl
SMILES [Cl-].[K+]
Molar mass Molar mass::74.5513 g/mol
Appearance white crystalline solid
CAS number CAS number::7447-40-7
Properties
Density Density::1988 kg m-3g/ml
Solubility in water

281 g/L (0°C)
344 g/L (20°C)
567 g/L (100°C)

Melting point Melting point::771°C
Boiling point Boiling point::1500°C
Acidity (pKa) ~7
Structure
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Dipole moment 8.9 x 10 ^(-30) Cm D
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards Slightly hazardous in case
of skin contact (irritant),
of eye contact (irritant),
of ingestion, of inhalation.
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

0
1
0
 
Flash point Non-flammable
RTECS number TS8050000
Related compounds
Other anions Potassium fluoride
Potassium bromide
Potassium iodide
Other cations Lithium chloride
Sodium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Related compounds Potassium chlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Potassium chloride is a metal halide salt with the chemical formula is KCl. It can also be called sylvite muriate of potash. . This compound can be good and toxic. So It is important to know that we should use it very carefully.

Properties

Potassium chloride has a crystalline structure. It can be described as "face-centered cubic.". The shape is good for dividing the mineral easily. It has a pH of 7.0 and is soluble in water and alcohol. When it stays at room temperature, odorless and colorless crystalline powder appears. This powder tastes salty. [1] About 0.8% of sea salt is potassium chloride that comes from from sylvine or sylvite. It also a good conductor of electricity in solution. When fire exposed, it would produce a purple flame because Potassium chloride has potassium ions.[2] Its melting Point is 773°C, its boiling point is 1420°C, and its density is 1.98 g/cm3. [3]

Synthesis / Occurrences

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Synthesis
Before preparing potassium chloride, you need beakers, chemical reagents, and safety equipment.
1.Chlorine will react the potassium metal directly. You should be careful because this reaction is dangerous.In the reaction, the electropositive potassium atom loses an electron. Chlorine is electronegative and forms the -1 ion equivalent, Cl-. The reaction between the two elements is:2 K + Cl₂ -> 2 KCl.
2.Mix potassium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. This is the easiest way to prepare potassium chloride, an acid-base reaction. The reaction is:KOH + HCl -> KCl + H2O.
3.change the anion of a weak acid with the anion of a strong acid. Potassium carbonate is the potassium salt of a weak acid. The desired potassium chloride is from reacting it with hydrochloric acid.
4. Separate the anions of two salts. When one of the salts of the product is insoluble, the reaction will be better. For example, in potassium chloride, potassium sulfate and barium chloride can explain. Barium sulfate is one of the most insoluble.
5. Become familiar with oxidation-reduction reactions.Potassium hypochlorite reacts with sodium arsenite. Potassium hypochlorite is reduced, and the sodium arsenite is reacted. The chlorine goes from a +1 to a -1 state. In gaining electrons, the chlorine has been reduced, but the arsenic loses electrons. It has been reacted.[4]


Occurrences
Potassium Chloride appears widely in nature. It is include in about 0.07% of the ocean, and by evaporating 98% of this you can make potassium salts start to crystallize. It also can distributed from volcanic rocks that have various minerals. Sylvite (KCl), carnalite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O), langbeinite (K2SO4.2MgSO4), and polyhalite (K2SO4.MgSO4.2CaSO4.2H2O) are the main potassium ores which can be found in Germany, the United States, Canada, Russia, Palestine, Congo, Ethiopia, Brazil and Bolivia. [5]

Uses

For humans, Potassium is important to maintain good health, especially a beating heart. When low levels of it is in the body, present one has to take medicine or it would result in sickness like vomiting and diarrhea. Potassium controls the mineral levels in our body. Sodium chloride is used to soften and control water. Potassium chloride can control the amount of sodium. Also, it is used to raise levels of potassium. Good minerals for plant and food come from potassium in the water that reduces the amount of sodium. Salt is harmful to our body. Potassium is used instead of sodium. It also can be harmful when used in large quantities. For example, people who have kidney problems have difficulty removing large quantities of Potassium Chloride from their body. In industry, Potassium Chloride is used often. It is used for metal to cast, weld, and solder. The Antifreeze that is used in cars has potassium chloride as an ingredient.[4]

Caution

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KCl is toxic; the lethal dose is around 2500 mg/kg.Table salt is about as toxic. Just over 100mg/kg can be critical in the veins, but there can be severe effects on the cardiac muscles. High doses can result in cardiac arrest and rapid death. [6] Injected potassium chloride can be difficult to work out the minimum lethal dose. One report on the alt.suicide forum said, “I injected potassium chloride (50mg/kg) and it wasn't lethal but it burned like hell, now I have blisters, my arm is swollen and the pain is beyond belief”. As a result, one should be very careful while using it. [7]

Video

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References

  1. Karyn, Maier. THE PROPERTIES OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE LIVESTRONG.COM. Web. accessed by 27.Feb.2013
  2. 염화칼륨 Naver 지식백과. Web. accessed by 27.Feb.2013
  3. potasium chloride(7447-40-7) ChemicalBook. Web. accessed by 27.Feb.2013
  4. 4.0 4.1 Vincent Summers How To Prepare Potassium Chloride eHOW . Web. accessed by 15.Mar.2013
  5. occurrence “nautilus”. Web. Accessed February 26, 2013 Author unknown..
  6. Lethal dose of potassium chloride?Answers. Web. accessed by 15.Mar.2013
  7. Cyanide & potassium chloride Lost All Hope . Web. accessed by 15.Mar.2013