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Phosgene oxime

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Phosgene oxime
687px-Phosgene-oxime-2D.pngPhosgene Oxime.png
General
Systematic name Phosgene Oxime
Other names Dichloroformoxime
Molecular formula CHCl2NO
SMILES ON=C(Cl)Cl
Molar mass Molar mass::113.9309 g/mol
Appearance Solid: colorless
crystalline structure
Liquid: yellowish-brown
in color
CAS number CAS number::1794-86-1
Properties
Solubility in water 70% g/100 ml (unknown°C)
Melting point Melting point::35-40°C
Boiling point Boiling point::128°C
Acidity (pKa) NA
Basicity (pKb) NA
Viscosity NA cP at NA°C
Structure
Crystal structure rz
Dipole moment unknown Debye
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards corrosive and volatile
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

0
4
1
R/S statement R: ?
S: ?
RTECS number unknown
Related compounds
unknown
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Phosgene oxime is a chemical warfare agent that was created before World War 1. Phosgene oxime is a skin necrotizer or skin vesicant and causes extreme pain to the body. No practical purposes have been ordained for this chemical and it has never been used in actual combat, so little is known about its effect on humans.

Properties

Phosgene oxime is a nerve gas that is classified as a skin-necromancer. These chemical compounds are designed to cause intense pain to the skin and corrode and destroy tissue. Phosgene oxime is often categorized in the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents, but this is not accurate since it does not technically cause blisters. Phosgene oxime can be found in all 3 states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. In its natural state, Phosgene oxime has no color and is a crystalline solid at 95°F or below. Even in its solid state, the vapor pressure produced from it is still high enough to give off its symptoms. The chemical was made over 70 years ago previous to World War 2, but as of today there are no recorded documents of its being used in combat. The most likely considered use of Phosgene oxime is of chemical warfare. This is because of its ability to soak through clothing and rubber substances faster than many other chemical agents available as well as its almost-immediate effects.

The effects of phosgene oxime primarily attack the organs and surfaces directly exposed to air. These areas include: the skin, eyes, lungs, and the stomach. The strongest effects are where the chemical contacts first. After that, it diludes and becomes less severe as it disperses. The lethal dose of phosgene oxime is roughly 25 mg/kg (and this kills about 50%).[1]

Phosgene Oxime is readily broken down by soil and water, but is potentially dangerous while it is in the air. Once phosgene oxime has been released, it poses a threat to anyone who breathes it. Bacteria can break down the chemical and into more base-substances and use it for other purposes.[2]

Synthesis / Occurrences

The creation of phosgene oxime is unknown in its origin.

Uses

Phosgene oxime was designed in 1929 specifically as a chemical warfare agent/nerve gas and therefore, has no known practical uses. This means phosgene oxime can not be used for anything except to be used purely as a weapon of destruction and pain. Even though it has been created as a weapon to harm, it has never been used in any combat in history(as far as is known). Phosgene oxime can be smelled, but it is colorless in appearance while it is in its solid state. In its liquid state however, the liquid is a yellowish-brown tint.[2]

Because phsogene oxime has no use outside that of being a weapon, there is an extremely small chance of ever being exposed to the reagent. However, the devastating effects of phosgene oxime rapidly proved itself as a chemical warfare agent because of its ability to penetrate clothing and incapacitate its victims. Phosgene oxime is supposedly more dangerous and painful if it is mixed with other chemical warfare agents. The chemical has been called a corrosive agent as well because it essentially dissolves skin. It can also corrode metal as well. Because of this effect on metal, it must be delivered in glass or plastic containers so it will not destroy the container it is in. As far as delivering the contents, the chemical can be delivered through a bomb and letting the explosive blast carry the compound through the air. The chemical can also be spread through a spray bottle, the problem with this is the sprayer is at risk of coming into contact with the compound as well. Therefore, this tactic of spreading oxime is highly impractical. The liquid form of the chemical can also be set down to evaporate and let it mix with the air and go where the wind takes it. Proper hazmat suits or protective clothing must be used in order to be around the chemical compound without risk of injury.[3]

The effects of Phosgene Oxime

Because Phosgene Oxime is a skin necromancer, almost-immediate pain ensues when contact is made with the chemical warfare agent. This pain is very extreme and has very strong physical effects on the skin of the human body. After contact is made, multiple stages of irritation can be noticed. After the first thirty seconds, the contacted area will turn white and red rings will surround the infected area. Thirty minutes later, the area will cultivate into a rash. After a 24 hour day has passed, the skin will die where it was previously white. After this, scabs are formed where the dead skin is.[4] If contact is made with the skin, you should not use water on phosgene oxime to rinse it out. This is because phosgene oxime is a skin vesicant and may spread the irritant further on the skin. An exception to this may be the eyes. If attempting to decontaminate someone that has physically contacted phosgene oxime, it must be done at an extremely rapid pace since skin vesicants can spread within a matter of minutes. The chemicals needed to decontaminate phosgene oxime are to dangerous to use in flushing the eyes out. Therefore, either water or sodium bicarbonate should be used instead. If clothing comes in contact with the chemical reagent, it should be removed immediately and bagged twice since the gaseous state of the chemical still poses a threat to those near it.[5]

In a small concentration (how much of the chemical compound/chemical compound strength), representing about %8 or lower, phosgene oxime will actually do very little to the person in contact with the chemical. However, in a higher level of concentration, the person contacted may actually be in enough pain that he will remove protective gear in a vain attempt to relieve some of the pain given him. Contact with the eyes may cause damage and blindness. Phosgene oxime is absorbed extremely fast and is taken in completely within a minute. The effects of the chemical are devastating and incurable as well. Do not ingest phosgene oxime because little information is known on phosgene oxime. [5]

Video

Video of a phosgene oxime leak example

References

  1. Schraga, EricD. [1] Medscape. Web. Accessed 2-19-13.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Author, Unknown. [2] Atsdr. Web. Accessed 2-21-13.
  3. Fire, Frank L. [3] fireengineering. Web. Published 7-1-2008.
  4. CPCP. [4] Salem/Cumberland County Health Department. Web. Accessed 2-27-13.
  5. 5.0 5.1 slu,edu. [5] Bioterrorism. Web. Accessed 3-17-13.