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PCP

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PCP
PCP.pngDrugs are bad.png
General
Systematic name 1-(1-Phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine
Other names

Angel Dust
PeaCe Pill
Hog
Lovely
Wack
Ozone
Dust
Embalming Fluid
Rocket Fuel

Molecular formula C17H25N
Molar mass Molar mass::243.387 g/mol
Appearance white crystalline powder
CAS number CAS number::77-10-1
Properties
Density and phase Density::1.98 g/ml, Solid
Solubility in water 0.00325 g/100 ml (22°C)
Melting point Melting point::46.5°C
Boiling point Boiling point::136°C
Structure
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazard highly toxic
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

4
2
0
W
Flash point 187°C
RTECS number TN2274000

PCP (phencyclidine) was developed in the 1950s as an intravenous anesthetic, but its use for humans was discontinued because it caused patients to become agitated, delusional, and irrational. Today individuals abuse PCP because of the mind-altering, hallucinogenic effects it produces. Users snort PCP powder, swallow tablets and capsules, or smoke the drug by applying it (in powder form) to a leafy substance such as marijuana, mint, parsley, or oregano. In addition, users increasingly are dipping marijuana or tobacco cigarettes in liquid PCP and smoking them.[1]

Properties

Chemical

Like its chemical cousin, ketamine, PCP is a dissociative sedative-anesthetic drug. It has hallucinogenic properties, however it is known to produce visual and auditory distortions, as well as perceptual changes.

Physical

PCP has a sharp chemical taste and is easily dissolved in water or alcohol, one of the two of its methods of ingestion. Other methods include using the powdered form of PCP sprinkled on a tobacco or marijuana cigarette. Other methods are to grind the pills into powder and snort the powder, swallowed in a drink or tablet form, to inject a dissolved liquid form of PCP, and use of the oil “base” of PCP as a “dip” for a cigarette or joint.

Synthesis

Illicit industrial-scale methamphetamine and MDMA chemical factory (Cikande, Indonesia)

The most commonly used method for PCP production is in secret labs, and is based on the Bruylants reaction, that is displacement of an alpha-amino nitrile by an organometallic reagent. There are two steps: preparation of a nitrile intermediate (PCC), and reaction of this intermediate with a northern reagent. The PCC intermediate can be synthesized through several routes. A typical clandestine batch operation might be run on a 3 to 5 molar scale.[2]

It should be known that the PCC intermediate is toxic. It is also somewhat difficult to separate from the final product if the reaction is not carried out to completion. Thus, in one study up to 20% of street samples of PCP contained measurable amounts of PCC. Ingestion of PCC in small amounts can cause toxic symptoms, such as headache and hangover. Larger amounts cause more severe symptoms. Handling of the material may also cause dizziness, faintness, and vomiting. Additionally, repeated exposure to PCC may cause an aggravated psychosis and result in sensitization, in which an individual may experience contact dermatitis from trace amounts of the substance.[3]

Uses

PCP began to emerge as a recreational drug in major cities in the United States in 1967. People magazine and Mike Wallace of 60 Minutes called PCP the country's "number one" drug problem. Although recreational use of the drug had always been relatively low, it began declining significantly in the 1980s. In surveys, the number of high school students admitting to trying PCP at least once fell from 13% in 1979 to less than 3% in 1990. [4] PCP comes in both powder and liquid forms (PCP base is dissolved most often in ether), but typically it is sprayed onto leafy material such as cannabis, mint, oregano, tobacco, parsley, or ginger leaves, then smoked. [5]

Effects

On PCP

Behavioral effects can vary by dosage. Low doses produce a numbness and intoxication, unsteady gait, slurred speech, bloodshot eyes, and loss of balance. Moderate doses will produce analgesia and anesthesia. High doses may lead to convulsions. The drug is often illegally produced under poorly-controlled conditions; this means that users may be unaware of the actual dose they are taking.[6] Psychological effects include severe changes in body image, loss of ego, paranoia, and depression. Hallucinations, euphoria, and suicidal impulses are also reported, as well as occasional aggressive behavior. Like many other drugs, PCP has been known to alter moods in an unpredictable fashion, causing some individuals to become detached, and others to become animated. PCP may induce feelings of strength, power, and invincibility as well as a numbing effect on the mind.[7]

Although uncommon, events of PCP-intoxicated individuals acting in an unpredictable fashion, possibly driven by their delusions or hallucinations, have been publicized. One example is the case of Big Lurch, a former rapper with a history of violent crime, who was convicted of murdering and cannibalizing his roommate while under the influence of PCP. Other commonly cited types of incidents include inflicting property damage and self-mutilation of various types, such as pulling one's own teeth.[8]

Video

PCP History and Facts

References

  1. PCP Fast Facts National Drug Intelligence Center.
  2. John Q. Beagle. Review of Synthetic Methods John Q. Beagle. Web. November 28, 2017
  3. John Q. Beagle. Review of Synthetic Methods John Q. Beagle. Web. November 28, 2017
  4. Addiction Hope. What Are the Long-Term Effects of PCP Use? unknown. Web. November 16, 2017.
  5. US Department of Justice. Diversion Control Division Government. Web. November 28, 2017
  6. Brust, J.C.M.. PCP - Phencyclidine Neurological Aspects of Substance Abuse. Web. November 16, 2017.
  7. What are hallucinogens? NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health. Web. January 16, 2016. unknown
  8. Cecil Adams. Does PCP turn people into cannibals? self published. Web. November 16, 2017.