Marble is a metamorphic rock originating from limestone exposed to high temperature and pressure. The basic component of marble is calcium carbonate, most commonly calcite or dolomite, whose content exceeds 90%. Marble are normally white but often tinted by iron oxide, carbon or serpentine to shades of black, brown, green or yellow. The largest deposits of marble are found in regions with limestone parent rock and volcanic activity. Marble is a rock explored for use in construction. Other common uses for marble are decoration and sculpture. Marble can easily be identified by its softness and vigorous reaction to dilute acid.
The essential component of marble is the Calcite. An additional component is the Dolomite. Other components that can be found are tremolite, diopside, serpentine.
In the Bible
Marble (Hebrew: שֵׁשׁ, shësh or Hebrew: שַׁיִשׁ, shayish, meaning "white") appears in the Old Testament in the books of Esther 1:6 , 1Chronicles 29:2 and Song of Songs 5:15 . In the New Testament, the word marble (Greek: μαρμάρου, marmaros) appears in the book of Revelation (Revelation 18:12 ). In the Bible, marble is a term used loosely for any fine-grained building, or ornamental stone, white or of delicate color, not very hard, and having a beautiful polish. There is no reason to think that the marble mentioned in the Bible was different from the marble used nowadays, except in the sense that the marble may vary in color and texture depending on the quarry where it is removed.
- Zim, Herbert S.; Schaeffer, Paul R. (1957). Rocks and Minerals: A Guide to Familiar Minerals, Gems and Rocks. New York: Golden Press. p. 134-135. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 61-8326.
- Price, Monica; Walsh, Kevin (2005). Rock and Minerals. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 77. ISBN 1-4053-0594-0.
- Unger, Merrill F (1988). Harrison, R. K.. ed. The New Unger´s Bible Dictionary. Chicago: Moody Press. pp. 865. ISBN 0-8024-9037-9.
- Douglas, J.D.; Tenney, Merril C, ed. (1987). The New International Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House. p. 657-658. ISBN 0-310-33190-0.
- Dimension Stone Statistics and Information – United States Geological Survey minerals information for dimension stone
- USGS 2005 Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Crushed
- USGS 2005 Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Dimension
- USGS 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Crushed
- USGS 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Dimension
- Marble Institute of America