A liberal is someone who agrees with and votes in support for the political philosophy of liberalism. Liberalism has a spectrum of definitions that vary depending on the field (political, economic, or theological) and period in history. In the 19th century, liberalism simply referred to the support of individual liberty and freedom. This kind of liberalism is now known as "classical liberalism". In the 20th and 21st centuries, liberalism came to refer to an ideology that supports more government involvement in the economy and rejects traditional social values. In theology, liberals believe that the church should change in order to fit in with the outside culture.
Liberty is the result of interaction between the government and the individual to whatever degree is allowed by the temporary representation the people put into power. Liberty in the religious context is the spiritual and moral outcome that constitutes Christianity.
Within the 21st century political landscape of the United States for example, the Republican party to some extent embraces classic liberalism or what can be called conservatism, while the Democrat political party tends to support a new, more progressive liberalism.
Classic liberalism is the economic philosophy recognizing a political economy needs to be rooted within the honored principles of private property, land or soil, and the individual. A democratic government under classic liberalism goes so far as to suggest that land ownership by individuals or what can be called private property accumulation ensures both a limited government and a fomenting of individual liberty. The idea being that a free market can be attained by defining wealth through making it equal to the labor put into the production or refinement of the resources the land, or private property provides an individual. Classic liberalism is similar to free market capitalism in that a type of economic power is maintained for individuals to counter that of the federal government. Classical liberalism as well as capitalism reject the redistribution of wealth as a legitimate tenet of government.
As 20th century politics within the United States maintained a Keynesian model of economics, at first a supporter of Keynes, Milton Friedman starting in the 1950's largely lead a revitalization of classic liberalism as a viable political and/or economic philosophy. A reinterpretation of the Keynesian consumption function model, a mathematical formula to express consumer spending, grew into an economic theory of monetarism that included far-reaching assumptions recognizing a constant rate of unemployment and concluding that the federal government should not micromanage the economy. Essentially a carefully crafted monetary policy which recognized constant realities, as was argued by Friedman, could have prevented the Great Depression rather then prolonged it as the Keynesian model of large-scale deficit spending which inevitably leads to increased federal government involvement did.
- Main Article: Keynesian economics
During the 20th century in opposition to classic liberalism an intellectual critique emerged based upon John Maynard Keynes (Keynesian) economics view, arguing for increased international and national economic intervention. A British economist Keynes rose to fame during the end of the Great War (World War I) through critiquing reparation payments imposed by the Allied Forces against Germany. Even more so critical was Keynes of the Council of Four that consisted of Georges Benjamin Clemenceau of France, Lloyd George of Britain and Woodrow Wilson of the United States and a minor member of Vittorio Orlando of Italy. Keynes determined that the cost was to great for Germany and it would remain politically unstable as a direct result. Later in his career John Maynard Keynes, at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference he was the main architect behind the formulation of the International Monetary Fund.
Generally someone who supports a progressive or essentially social approach towards the economics of new liberalism. Progressive reform policies are presented within the U.S. Presidential administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson considered a leading intellectual of the progressive movement, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Lyndon Baines Johnson. Progressive liberalism applied nationally through domestic federal government activism is considered the only way of amelioration for social inequalities. Progressive liberalism has also been called "revisionist," "modern liberalism," or a, "welfare state mentality" and is seen as the force behind the implementation of "social justice."
Contemporary progressive arguments are also found in the gambit of controversial issues. A type of interpretation is used by judges said to be judicial activists by its stance counter to that of an originalist perspective toward the Constitution. Progressive liberals attempt to empower the national government by international integration neglecting sovereignty due to support of globalization, heavy domestic corporate and individual taxation supporting social trends such as abortion, gay marriage and generally the legalization of (again through taxing) marijuana.
- Main Article: Liberal theology
Liberal Christianity, liberal Christian theology or just liberal theology are the terms used to articulate and define assumptions of eisegesis that have been historically inherited by celebrating man's reason alone as the sole authority. Embraced during The Age of Enlightenment in the 18th and 19th century, a time when the superior view of man's reason encroached into everyday life, welcomed with broad adoption of its philosophical principles lifting man up to a point which he was ultimate. Inevitably introduced into all realms of life including religion, the Enlightenment radically changed cultural, social and political milieus that ran counter to the reason of man. Thus, governments adopted a secular mindset that pushed further into religious institutions and faith based organizations, attaching separate political institutions with overarching roles that allow co-mingling of values and ideals.
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- Conservative Leaders Urge Senate to Reject Dodd-Frank Financial Bailout Legislation; MEMO FOR THE MOVEMENT
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