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Ketamine

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Ketamine
Ketamine.svg.pngKetamine3Dan.gif
General
Systematic name

2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-
(methylamino)cyclohexanone

Other names

Ketaject
Ketanest
dl-Ketamine, Ketalar
CI 581 base
CLSTA 20
Ketolar

Molecular formula C13H16ClNO
SMILES CNC1(CCCCC1=O)C2=CC=CC=C2Cl
Molar mass Molar mass::237.725 g/mol
Appearance Either a liquid or a white crystal powder
CAS number CAS number::1867-66-9
Properties
Density and phase Density::1.2±0.1 g/cm3
Solubility in water 0.2 g/mL (20 C)
Melting point Melting point::262°C
Boiling point Boiling point::263°C
Chiral rotation [α]D - 0.2° to + 0.2°
Viscosity 4.1 to 3.3 cP at 37°C
Structure
Crystal structure monoclinic
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards dangerous if ingested
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

0
2
0
 
Flash point none
R/S statement R: 20/21/22
36/37/38
S: 36/37/39
26
RTECS number GW1400000
Related compounds
Related compounds Ketamine Hydrochloride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Ketamine is an inorganic, crystalline powder. It is a white powder. Some other names for the drugs are special K, green, jet, K, and super C. The molecular formula is C13H16ClNO. When in the form of ketmaine hydrochloride it is clear and in liquid form. It being in ketamine's Hydrochloric form enables it to be injected into I.V. systems and put directly into the bloodstream. Although it is normally used as an anesthetic in veterinary practices, it is used on humans also. If used in excess it can become addictive. It can cause unpleasant effects such as muscle spasms, shallow breathing, and extreme fear. It can only be produced through in labs and through man made ways. It cannot be produced naturally. if it gets into your eyes you should rinse immediately. If you feel a change in breathing or an extreme fear you should contact your doctor immediately.

Properties

Ketamine is a pharmaceutical drug that comes in liquid or in a white crystal powder. It can be injected into I.V. or snorted to receive the effects. [1] It is commonly used as an anesthetic for minor surgeries on small mammals, it is most commonly used in veterinary medicine.[2] In a saline and water enviorment this compound is soluble. [3] It is tasteless and odorless. It is commonly used as a party and date rape drug. It causes amnesia and takes aways the ability for the person to talk or move. The use of it in higher doses causes hallucinations, and complete dissociation from the body into the mind. Some side effects are heart rhythm abnormalities and slowed breathing. [4]

Synthesis

Dried ketamine crystals

Ketamine is a very difficult compound to synthesize. The synthesis starts with the reaction of cyclopentyl Grignard and o-chlorobenzonitrile to give o-chlorophenyl-cyclopentyl ketone, followed by alpha bromination of the ketone, and then reaction with methylamine to form an alpha-hydroxy imine. Heating this imine results in Ketamine via a novel alpha-hydroxyimine rearrangement. It does not occur naturally in nature.


119.0 g of cyclopentyl bromide and 19.4 g of magnesium are reacted in ether or Tetrahydrofuran to give a cyclopentyl Grignard reagent. 55.2 g of o-chlorobenzonitrile is then added.pour it onto crushed ice and ammonium chloride. this makes o-chlorophenylcyclopentylketone.To 21.0 g of the above ketone is added 10.0 g of bromine in 80 ml of carbon tetrachloride dropwise. An orange suspension forms. 29.0g of above bromoketone is dissolved in 50 ml of methylamine freebase. Benzene may also be used as solvent.The last step is a thermal rearrangement. 2.0 g of the preceding N-methylimine is dissolved in 15 ml of decalin. After evaporation of the solvent under reduced pressure, the residue is extracted with dilute hydrochloric acid, the solution treated with decolorizing charcoal, and the resulting acidic solution is made basic.[5]

Another way of synthesizing ketamine is by dissolving 10g of methylketimine in 100mls undecane and boiling at 195°C for 3-4hrs. Ketamine is then extracted with HCl. Acidic extract is then basified and extracted with DCM. Solvent is removed giving the product as an oil that quickly crystallizes. [6]

Uses

Ketamine's primary usage is as an injectable anesthetic for minor surgery on small mammals including dogs and cats In the U.S. It is most commonly used in veterinary medicine. because of its easy use and its history as a safe anesthetic, Ketamine is still often used as a human anesthetic in hospitals. Ketamine is used to put you to sleep for surgery and to prevent pain and discomfort during certain medical tests or procedures. Some use it not for medical uses but for recreational use. People use it by injecting it into the bloodstream or snorting the dry crystal powder. Long term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, numbness, depression, amnesia, hallucinations and potentially fatal respiratory problems.[4] Ketamine users can also develop cravings for the drug. [7]

Recreational Usage

A vial of Ketamine hydrochloride

Ketamine is mainly used for medical practices but also is used by many for recreational use. It is not a safe drug to use unless you are only using it for medical practices and administered professionally by a doctor. People describe the use of it saying fragmentation will occur- the world will begin to spin. Chaos will ensue. At some point, you will find yourself complete removed from your surroundings and your body. Most include talk of alternate planes of existence, oneness, past and future revelations, and strange fabrics of all sorts. It is a very dangerous drug to use because it can cause jerky muscle movement, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, extreme fear, severe feeling, hallucinations, and shallow breathing. [8]

Video

Skip to a minute and thirty seconds to see the part on ketamine.

References

  1. Ketamine brown education. Web. author unknown.
  2. James Kent the ketamine konundrum erowid. Web. 1 Oct 1999 updated.
  3. WARNER LAMBERT. ketamine data sheet erowid. Web. Date unknown.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Buddy T. basic facts about ketamine about. Web. Updated September 04, 2013.
  5. synthesis of ketamine Erowid. Web. Date-of-publication or last-update or access (specify which). Author unknown
  6. Zealot. Zealot's total synthesis of ketamine Erowid. 2005 last update.
  7. KETAMINE http://www.drugfreeworld.org/. Web. author unknow.
  8. side effects of ketamine Rx list. Web.Author unknown.