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Kerosene

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Bottle of Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as paraffin or paraffin oil. Is a common flammable liquid hydrocarbon that has many different uses. It was discovered by a Canadian physician Abraham Gesner in the 1840s. It has many unique properties and various uses. Kerosene was so influential when it was discovered it helped spark and worldwide revolution to try and get a hold of oil. There is a very long and complex process to endure through as you make kerosene. The end product is used in jet engines and cooking today but back in the nineteenth century it was burned in lamps to light up everything giving the world a pale yellow glow.[1]

Properties

Kerosene is known as a alumina nanofluid for its stability. It conducts thermal energy well and has a good viscosity at low volume concentration of nanoparticles.[2] Kerosene at room temperature has no smell and has a clearish yellow color. But when it is burning it gives off strong smoke odors. At room temperature kerosene has a density of 0.80 grams per milliliter. Then the density goes up as the temperature goes down. At 59 degrees Fahrenheit, the density can increase to 0.94 grams per milliliter. Kerosene does not mix with water but it does mix with other petroleum products. Depending on what the air pressure is kerosene's boiling point varies from 347 degrees to 617 degrees Fahrenheit. Also depending on the air pressure kerosene's point at which the vapors will ignite are from 100 degrees to 185 degrees Fahrenheit. At sea level kerosene's vapors will ignite at 149 degrees Fahrenheit. The point at which kerosene will ignite on its own depending on pressure is 444 degrees Fahrenheit. [3]

Synthesis

50 ml crude oil (petroleum)

The first step in collecting and creating kerosene is drilling into the earth. Eventually when the drill ends up hitting a reservoir gases pressure shoots out and makes a geyser. Kerosene is extracted from a mixture of petroleum chemicals, this mixture consists of oil, rocks, water, and other contaminates in subterranean reservoirs made of porous layers of sandstone and carbonate rock. The oil itself is made from dead organisms that have been buried in sediment and decayed. They turned into petroleum through diagenesis and catagensis. Once the entire reservoir is collected it is sterilized by extracting the contaminants such as water, gases and dirt. Now the crude oil must be separated by distillation by heating the oil separating the components of it. Now the fractional amount that is collected is known as kerosene. Then the kerosene which has been collected needs to go through a series of chemical reactions. Once the kerosene has reacted is goes through another complicated purification process that could affect the burning properties of the kerosene. Once all of this is complete it is contained, sold and sent off to be used. [4]

Uses

2 Kerosene lamps burning

There are many different uses for Kerosene in the world today. It was originally made from coal tar and shale oils but after the discovery of petroleum it mainly came from that. It has been used in lamps for a very long time but this soon became rare after the electric light bulb was put into, and lit up houses all over the world. It is used now days to heat furnaces and for cooking in certain parts of the world. It is also commonly used for jet fuel and as solvents for greases and insecticides. [5]

History

In 1846 a crowd gathered in Charlottetown as geologist and medical doctor Abraham Gesner revealed a new discovery of a white liquid that would give off a pale yellow light. No one knew just how gig this discovery called "kerosene" would be as they stood watching the distilled coal burn. It soon sparked a world wide revolution as they found they could get kerosene from petroleum. It spread to every corner of the earth being used to light up homes, factories, hospital and streets. The price of kerosene was high at first but soon it became cheap as everyone on earth wanted to have light in their house at night. In the United States alone had 30 refineries getting oil by 1860. It became more and more popular as time went on as the oil industry just continued to sky rockets. [6]

Video

How to make home made Kerosene out of used plastic

References

  1. The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. Kerosene Chemical Compound Britannica.com. Web. Updated March 20, 2016.
  2. Vaidyanathan, Aravind and S. Sunil, Kumar. Applied Thermal Engineering Sciencedirect.com. Web. Published October 02, 2013.
  3. Painter, Tammie. Properties of Kerosene eHow.com. Web. Accessed April 20, 2016.
  4. Neal, Kay and McKay, Donald. Kerosene Madehow.com. Web. May 10, 2006.
  5. The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. Kerosene Chemical Compound Britannica.com. Web. Updated March 20, 2016.
  6. Cline, Bev. [The History Of Kerosene] Bevcline.com. Web. Published August/September, 2007.