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Hydrogen peroxide

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Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide.pngHydrogen-peroxide-3D-balls.png
General
Systematic name Dihydrogen dioxide
Other names

Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen dioxide
Dioxidane

Molecular formula H2O2
Molar mass Molar mass:34.0147 g/mol
Appearance

Very pale blue color;
colorless in solution

CAS number CAS number:7722-84-1
Properties
Density and phase Density:1.4 g·cm−3, liquid
Solubility in water Miscible g/100 ml (25°C)
Melting point Melting point:-11°C
Boiling point Boiling point:150.2°C
Acidity (pKa) 11.65
Viscosity 1.245cP at 20°C
Structure
Molecular shape bent
Dipole moment 2.26 D
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards Oxidant, corrosive.
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

0
3
1
OX
Flash point Non-flammable
R/S statement R: R5, R8, R20, R22, R35
S: S1, S2, S17, S26, S28,
S36, S37, S39, S45
RTECS number MX0900000
Related compounds
Other cations Sodium peroxide
Related Water, Ozone, Hydrazine [1]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. It is best known as a household chemical used predominantly for disinfecting and cleaning purposes. Due to its accessibility, low health risk, and oxidizing power, H2O2 is one of the most popular common cleaning chemical around the world. It can be used by anyone to clean almost anything. Common uses of hydrogen peroxide includes cleaning surfaces, clearing acne, sterilizing air, and disinfecting cuts. This acid resembles many characteristics of water as it is practically colorless and odorless. Hydrogen peroxide can be found in many products such as various oils as well as mouthwash and toothpaste.

Properties

Chemical

The atoms in hydrogen peroxide are H2O2, which readily breaks down into either H and HO2 or two OHs because the single bond between the two oxygen atoms are weak. Hydrogen peroxide is very reactive so it makes for a great, powerful oxidizing agent. The simplicity and powerful oxidizing ability of hydrogen peroxide is what makes it such a common chemical in many houses.[2] Hydrogen peroxide is an aqueous solution and since the oxygen atoms have a -1 oxidation number, hydrogen peroxide can act as both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent. The hydrogen peroxide molecule often forms donor-acceptor compounds because of the free electron pairs on both oxygen atoms. It can also act as a weak acid solution.[3]

Physical

The physical properties of hydrogen peroxide slightly resembles water. It is a clear liquid at room temperature and is 40% denser than water.[2] Hydrogen peroxide has a bitter taste and is nonflammable. It is a fairly safe solution but it still should be handled with caution. Hydrogen peroxide has a boiling point of 150 C and a freezing point of -1 C. The freezing point is very similar to water's 0 C freezing point but the boiling point is much larger than water's 100 C. [4]

Occurrences

Hydrogen peroxide occurring in mouthwash

Low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can be found in many edible oils and fats or both vegetable and animal origin. The range of oils which it can be found in include: soybean, corn, groundnut, sunflower, rapeseed, olive, sesame, linseed, and mackerel oils. It can also be found in margarine and solid vegetable fat. The largest concentration hydrogen peroxide from the oils can be found in the soybean oil (2.76 μg per gram of oil). Heating a soybean oil with a high H2O2 concentration at 90 C can have a lethal effect. Using water to wash away the hydrogen peroxide can reduce the lethal effect. Due to its oxidizing ability, hydrogen peroxide can also be found in many mouthwash solutions, as well as in some tooth paste products.[5]

About 10-7 M or less of hydrogen peroxide can be found in much of sea water. No direct evidence show that it has any significance, but experiments are being run to see if it effects the age growth of corals or other water dwelling animals.[6] Small amounts of hydrogen peroxide can also be found in twigs of Populous gelrica, a plant grown in fields under natural conditions. About 1.2 μmoles per gram can be found in the xylem and about 0.5 μmoles per gram can be found in the living bark (dry weight samples).[7]

Uses

Cleaning baby's teeth with hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a household chemical with a wide variety of uses. Since hydrogen peroxide is so cheap in price and fairly safe to use, people use it for many purposes around the house, such as a disinfectant. Spraying water with hydrogen peroxide on plants can keep them healthy. When using the proper amount of hydrogen peroxide, it can be used as a fungus and weed killer. Water with hydrogen peroxide can also be used to clean litter boxes, remove bird poop, and clean fish bowls. It can also be used to disinfect hard surfaces such as countertops, bath tubes, toilets, tiles, walls, and others.[8] Hydrogen peroxide also cleans fruits and vegetables when used correctly. Hydrogen peroxide is a great kitchen chemical. It can help remove food stains on dishes, clean sink sponges, and even be put in dishwashers to help clean dishes. Hydrogen peroxide is an overall great cleaning chemical, which can be used in and outside the house.[9]

In addition to its ability to clean objects, hydrogen peroxide is safe enough and can be used on the human body. When mixed with baking soda, Hydrogen peroxide makes great toothpaste. It also makes for great mouthwash and tooth bush sanitizer. Hydrogen peroxide can also serve as a highlighter to hair, when diluted with water. Soaking your feet in Hydrogen peroxide can kill some foot fungus, disinfect minor cuts, and soften corns and calluses. Since hydrogen peroxide kills bacteria, it serves as a great cut injury disinfectant, since it help keeps the cut from getting infected. Also keep in mind that hydrogen peroxide does a great job at clearing blood stains on furniture and clothes.[9] It can also help clear acne when used correctly and with the right amount. People suggest talking to your doctor before using hydrogen peroxide to clear acne. Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most widely used house chemicals, as it serves as a great disinfected and cleaning solution. [10]

Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor

A simple hydrogen peroxide vapor apparatus

The growth of hydrogen peroxide use in the healthcare industry has steadily increased throughout time. Scientists have been trying to find other ways to utilize hydrogen peroxide's oxidizing ability so they discovered using it in vapor form. Hydrogen peroxide vapor is used in the healthcare field mainly to decontaminate and sterilize patient rooms and other hospital rooms. Hydrogen peroxide vapors has also been used to sterilize fruit, other edibles, and packaging containers in the food industry. Although the vapor state can be utilized to help prevent problems, it can also cause problems when not used carefully or correctly.[11]

Not only can hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilize surfaces, but it can also sterilize bacteria in the air. Since most sicknesses are spread though air and breathing unhealthy air, some medical field buildings use hydrogen peroxide vapor to help prevent contamination from one patient to another. Since hydrogen peroxide vapor is most effective in certain humidities and temperatures, hospitals often reduce the level of humidity throughout the room usually through a machine. Using the correct amount of vapor in a room is also very important for its effectiveness and safety since too much exposure to the vapor could cause a headache, dizziness, numbness, tremors, or even unconsciousness. The decontamination process can take as long a a few minutes up to around 6 hours. Hydrogen peroxide is a great choice to turn into a vapor for decontamination purposes since it is colorless and odorless.[12]

Video

The use of hydrogen peroxide vapor in a hospital and how it works.

References

  1. Hydrogen peroxide New World Encyclopedia. Web. Last-Modified March 29, 2014. Unknown Author.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hydrogen Peroxide ch.ic.ac.uk. Web. Accessed May 12, 2017. Unknown Author.
  3. Physico-chemical Properties Evonik. Web. Accessed May 12, 2017. Unknown Author.
  4. Hydrogen Peroxide: Preparation, Properties, and Structure Study.com. Web. Accessed May 12, 2017. Unknown Author.
  5. Coxon, David. The occurrence of hydrogen peroxide in edible oils Wiley Online Library. Web. Accessed May 21, 2017.
  6. Van Baalen, C. Occurrence of Hydrogen Peroxide in Sea Water Nature Publishing Group. Web. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  7. Sagisaka, Shonosuke The Occurrence of Hydrogen peroxide in a Perennial Plant Plant Physiology. Web. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  8. Alexander, Rose. 9-Household-Uses-For-Hydrogen-Peroxide Life Script. Web. Published March 3, 2008.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Jillee. 30-Uses_For-Hydrogen-Peroxide One Good Thing. Web. Published April 10, 2017.
  10. Marusinec, Laura. How to Clear Up Acne With Hydrogen Peroxide Wiki How. Web. Accessed May 10, 2017.
  11. Agalloco, James. Overcoming Limitations of Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide PharmTech.com. Web. Published September 2, 2013.
  12. McLeod, Vince. VHP Safety Basics Lab Manager. Web. Published July 6, 2012.