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Hydrogen chloride

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Hydrogen chloride
800px-Hydrogen-chloride-2D-dimensions.png230px-HCl molecule model-VdW surface svg.png
Systematic name Hydrogen chloride
Other names Hydrochloric acid
Chlorohydric acid
Molecular formula HCl
Molar mass Molar mass::36.46 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas, hygroscopic
CAS number CAS number::7647-01-0
Density and phase Density::1.477 g/ml gas
Solubility in water 72 g/100 ml (20°C)
Melting point Melting point::-114.2°C
Boiling point Boiling point::-85.1°C
Acidity (pKa) -7
Molecular shape Linear
Dipole moment 1.05 D
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
Main hazards Corrosive and irritating
in case of skin or eyes contact.
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

Flash point none
R/S statement R: 23, 35
S: .5, 9, 26, 36, 37, 39, 45
RTECS number MW4025000
Related compounds
Other anions Hydrogen bromide
hydrogen cyanide
hydrogen iodide
hydrogen fluoride.
Other cations Sodium chloride
Related compounds Hydrochloric acid
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Hydrogen chloride is the solid form of the inorganic compound abbreviated HCl. When dissolved in water, hydrogen chloride forms hydrochloric acid (also HCl). It is a colorless hygroscopic compound, which has a powerful inclination to draw out water and vaporize it.(Cox 204-305) In addition, when people are using hydrogen chloride, they had better watch out, because it is an acid that irritates human body organs.[1] Hydrogen chloride can be found during coal burning and volcanoes. Most of hydrogen chloride occurs at the coal fire plants, which are like powerhouses that burn coal to create energy. Moreover, a small quantity of hydrogen chloride occurs at volcanoes, and also in gastric juice from the stomach. [2] [3] Hydrogen chloride has been used in many industries, especially in the fiber industry, it could be used in coloring, compost, even in the semiconductors.[4] Besides, hydrogen chloride influences both in the environment and human body in modern days by its acidic characteristic.[5]


Hydrochloric acid, chlorhydric acid and hydrochloride are other names of hydrogen chloride, and those names could describe hydrogen chloride indirectly. Hydrogen chloride is a chemical compound that is a combination one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom, with the formula HCl. Hydrogen chloride is a colorless and toxic gas and its odor piquant, which means it is an irritant. Moreover, hydrogen chloride is hygroscopic, that is a compound that absorbs the moisture from the air. Also, hydrochloric acid is a mixture of hydrogen chloride in water, HCl in H2O, and the colorless gas form yellow liquid when it is burned in humid atmosphere. [6][7]

The common mercantile, hydrochloric acid consists of thirty percent hydrogen chloride and can be divided by the percentage of hydrogen chloride and its mass. Hydrogen chloride is easily soluble in water, alcohol, and benzene, however, if the temperature of water, alcohol and benzene increases then it would have less soluble. When hydrogen chloride is liquefied in water, the result is called dilute hydrochloric acid, and they usually liquefy before it sell in the market. The density of hydrogen chloride is 1.477 gram per milliliters, it soluble in water at twenty Celsius degree, at -114.2 Celsius degree it converts into solid, called freeze, and at -85.1 Celsius degree it converts into liquid, called condense. [8][9]


These are coal seams at the Smoky Mountain and hydrogen chloride occurs during coal burning.

Numerous amount of hydrogen chloride occurs during coal burning, leftover food, and active volcanoes. First, from coal burning and leftover food, both actions include salt that could help hydrogen to convert into hydrogen chloride. Plenty of hydrogen chloride was made from coal fired plants, which burns coal as fuels to create energy. Then, it supports many nations for electricity; however, burning coal, is one of the most meaningful reasons or causes of the global warming by breaking down the ozone. [10] Moreover, comparatively, there occurs a small quantity of hydrogen chloride from volcanoes. From volcanoes, there are many chemical gases come out, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Among these gases, hydrogen chloride is the strongest acid, which means it can damage on something badly. [11] Hydrogen chloride is not only found in volcanoes or coal burning; every human has gastric or stomach in their body, and there are gastric juices of about 3 pH. Gastric juice chief parts are producing pepsin, and hydrochloric acid to support digestion system and support to break down the baneful germs, which means hydrogen chloride is protecting our body from diseases.[12]


In the history of chemistry, the discovery of hydrogen chloride influenced modern days. Johann Glauber is the chemist who found out hydrogen chloride by using sodium chloride. Before, it got its name it was called by spirits of the salt because it is made of salt. [13] In these days, hydrogen chloride is taking advantage by making many chemical materials, such as compost, acid for coloring and synthetic silk. Which means, they are used in the fiber industry, and electric gilding, for example, they use hydrogen chloride to detach cotton from wool and nappy, and to corrode semiconductors. Also, not only in electric gilding, they can be used in metal manufactures, especially tin an tantalum. [14] [15] Moreover, the most significant use of hydrogen chloride is cleaning many materials by its extremely strong acid. Then, it also can be used in manufacturing or laboratory. This shows that they could be use in creating medicine or compounding of medicine, because of its water soluble characteristic. Not only in the manufactures or industries, as it mentioned earlier in occurrence section, gastric juice contains hydrogen chloride and they are used in ingesting foods. [16]

Influence of Hydrogen Chloride

Acid rain causes water pollution, and fishkill is affected by acid rain directly.

Influence in Environment

Hydrogen chloride, HCl, comes out of volcanoes and coal burnings, which brings us air pollution and it is the origin or beginning of the global warming. As the picture left, describe about hydrochloric acid is corrosive and irritation, and corrosive, destructing the firm and hard substance, affects for buildings; however, irritation, cause pain, hurt and discomfort in human body, affects in human. Moreover, there are two levels in hydrogen chloride corrosives, which are low and high. If the level is low, then it would destruct substances but, the intensity would be low. However, if the level is high, then the intensity goes high and it could bring buildings down. [17]Hydrogen chloride ruins the environment by their corrosives. They are included in the rain, known as acid rain, and when it touches with the earth, then it could damage to every living things, such as plants, fish and so on. Moreover, the acid rain is one of the significant causes or reasons of fishkill. [18]

Influence in Human

This is the bottle of hydrochloric acid that is corrosive and irritant to human body when it contacted.

Hydrogen chloride is strong acid, which means it could affect people, such as its corrosive and irritating in case of skin and eyes contact. The routes that hydrogen chloride could harm human body are breathing in the air that includes hydrogen chloride, and drinking the fluid of hydrochloric acid. First, breathing the air with hydrogen chloride could affect just in throat, if the hazard level is low, however, if te hazard level is high, then it could affect all the respiratory system in human body. Second, drinking hydrochloric acid could affect bad in most organs in human body, because it starts at mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach and even the small intestine and large intestine. Then, all the walls (skin and muscle) from throat through stomach would be burned, which is extremely painful and also it could extend to serious problem. [19][20]