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Helicobacter

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Helicobacter
EMpylori.jpg
Scientific Classification
Species
  • H. acinonychis
  • H. aurati
  • H. bilis
  • H. bizzozeronii
  • H. canadensis
  • H. canis
  • H. cholecystus
  • H. cinaedi
  • H. felis
  • H. fennelliae
  • H. ganmani
  • H. hepaticus
  • H. mesocricetorum
  • H. muridarum
  • H. mustelae
  • H. pametensis
  • H. pullorum
  • H. pylori
  • H. rodentium
  • H. salomonis
  • H. trogontum
  • H. typhlonius

The Helicobacter is a taxonomic genus of bacteria. One of the most common species of Helicobacter is the H. pylori which can also aid in getting ulcers and even some severe stomach pains. This type of bacteria is very contagious because it can spread through the simplest of things like spit.

Anatomy

When talking about the anatomy Helicobacter most will think of the H. pylori first which is a gram negative bacteria that has 4 flagella. Most of the time the H. pylori has about 4-6 flagellas.[1]

Reproduction

When a bacteria is ready to reproduce it goes through an asexual reproduction called binary fission. In one of the bacterium one of the chromosomes is copied which are then connected to the plasma membrane. When the cell starts to grow it will form some daughter cells that have their own chromosomes.[2]

Ecology

When someone has Helicobacter is comes form the foods they eat. When the food is swallowed the food goes down the esophagus and enters the large upper part of the stomach. Once the food hits the antrum in the stomach where is squeezes down the food and goes into the duodenum. When the mucus in the stomach is hit by the acid in the stomach that is when the Helicobacter comes in. It attacks the upper parts of the stomach that can cause serious pain.[3]

Symptoms

Sometimes people can have Helicobacter without any signs of symptoms or any type of disease. Others might suffer from upper abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and if severe enough there might also be some bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. When speaking of the abdominal pains it has been described as a burning sensation right below the ribs. There might also be some bloating and burping after eating.And some even have woken up at early in the morning with stomach pains. There will also be some inflaming of the stomach and when that happens there can some bleeding of the stomach lining or from an ulcer. The bleeding in the stomach lining is cause by the H. pylori from it wearing away the lining of the stomach. Other symptoms include some vomiting of blood, and passing black tarry stools which is when the blood has been metabolized and only partially digested.[4]

Treatment

People that have H. pylori should seek treatment immediately, for those that have sought treatment will have a higher rate of ulcer healing with a lower rate of recurring ulcers, also a reduced complications such as bleeding. There are some medications that can be taken but there are also some side effects. there is no medication that can instantly cure H. pylori it will take from 7-14 days. But the medication to take would be proton pump inhibitor. What this does is reduce the amount of acid in the stomach so that the damaged tissue would be able to heal. There are also some antibiotics that can help reduce the risk of the medicine not working.The side effects can be mild but there are some people that stop the treatment because of the side effects. One of them would be to get a metallic taste in your mouth, when taking the medication it should not be taken with any type of alcoholic drink because you will end up with skin flushing, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating and a rapid heart rate. This can also cause diarrhea and stomach cramps.[5]

References