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Fructose

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Fructose
Fructose
General
Systematic name Fructose
Other names

D-arabino-Hexulose
Fruit sugar
beta-Levulose
Levulose

Molecular formula C6H12O6.
Molar mass Molar mass::180.16 g/mol
Appearance White crystals
CAS number CAS number::57-48-7
Properties
Solubility in water Very soluble in water
Melting point Melting point::105°C
Hazards
MSDS MSDS Sheet

Fructose, is the sugar that is most commonly found in foods, such as honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and other vegetables with roots, such as beets, sweet potatoes, parsnips, and onions. It is one of the most important blood sugars, next to glucose and galactose. It can commonly be taken through the digestion of sucrose. Fructose is said to be about twice as sweet as sucrose, making it the sweetest sugar that occurs in nature naturally. It is often used for people with diabetes or hypoglycemia. [1]

Isomer of Glucose

Fructose, is a monosaccharide and an isomer of glucose, which are both C6H12O6. Fructose, in its pure form is very similar to cane sugar, and tastes nearly the same as well, but with more of fruity smell. Many times the structure of fructose is found as a 5-member hemiketal ring, even though it is considered a hexose. Because of this, it is possible for fructose to have a higher long metabolic pathway and reactivity than glucose.[2]

Properties

Fructose is absorbed in the Glut-5 transporter, as well as the Glut-2 transporter. If there is not enough fructose directed to Glut-5, there can be an outcome of more than acceptable fructose being directed into the lower intestine. In the lower intestine, it can provide the nutrients needed for the existing gut flora, a gas producer. This can result in water retention in the intestine, which can easily lead on to bloating, excessive flatulence, loose stools, and even diarrhea. Other problems associated with fructose are obesity, heightened cholesterol, and triglycerides, which lead to metabolic syndrome. In one study, it was said that fructose "produced significantly higher fasting plasma triacylglycerol values than did the glucose diet in men" and "if plasma triacylglycerols are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, then diets high in fructose may be undesirable"[3]

High fructose corn syrup, an ingredient commonly found in soft drinks, was shown in comparison with sucrose, a common cane sugar, to find that the physiological effects of the two are essentially the same. Fructose can be known to chelate minerals in the blood. This is important for the micronutrients such as copper, chromium and zinc. Because of the small quantities that are present of copper, chromium, and zinc, the chelation of ions may lead to diseases, the immune system being impaired, and possible insulin resistance.[4]

Occurrences

Fructose, is found in fruits, honey, and vegetables, and their juices. it provides the sweet taste in these foods, because of its sweet sugary properties.

Uses

Meira Field, Ph.D., a research chemist at the USDA says that "The medical profession thinks fructose is better for diabetics than sugar, but every cell in the body can metabolize glucose. However, all fructose must be metabolized in the liver. The livers of the rats on the high fructose diet looked like the livers of alcoholics, plugged with fat and cirrhotic." [5]

Fructose can commonly be used as a substitute for sucrose, because it is much less expensive than sucrose, and has much less effect of glucose levels in measured blood. When fructose is consumed, it is typically consumed through high fructose corn syrup, in sodas. This type of corn syrup has been enzymatically treated by glucose isomerase. This enzyme replaces a portion of glucose, with fructose, to make it sweeter [6]

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