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Darmstadtium

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Darmstadtium
Darmstadtium
General Info
Atomic Symbol Atomic symbol::Ds
Atomic Number Atomic number::110
Atomic Weight Atomic weight::281.162 g/mol
Chemical series Transition metals
Appearance Appearance is unknown
Unknown Image for Meitnerium.png
Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d [1]
Electron configuration Rn5f146d87s2
Electrons per shell 2,8,18,32,32,17,1
Electron shell darmstadtium.png
CAS number CAS number::54083-77-1
Physical properties
Phase Solid (presumed)[2]
Density [[Density::20oC g/ml]]
Melting point Melting point::unknown
Boiling point Boiling point::unknown.
Isotopes of Darmstadtium
iso NA half-life DT DE (MeV) DP
267Ds? no data 2.8μs α - -
268Ds no data 100? μs α ? - -
269Ds no data 179 μs α - -
270Ds no data 100 μs α, SF - -
270mDs no data 6.0 ms α, IT - -
271Ds no data 1.63 ms α - -
271mDs no data 69 ms α - -
272Ds no data 1? s SF ? - -
273Ds no data 170 μs α - -
274Ds no data 2? s α, SF ? - -
275Ds no data 2? s α ? - -
276Ds no data 5? s α ? - -
277Ds no data 5.7 ms α - -
278Ds no data 10? s α, SF ? - -
279Ds syn 0.20 s is stable with 10%α neutrons.
280Ds no data 11? s SF ? - -
281Ds syn 11s is stable with 6%α neutrons.
281mDs? syn 3.7min is stable with α neutrons.
All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.

Darmstadtium is a chemical element known by the atomic symbol Ds. Its the 110th element location in the periodic table in the group 10, period 7, and in the d-block. There is not much information about this element since it is one of the recently discovered elements. This element was discovered by Peter Armbruster and Sigurd Hofmann in 1994. They used heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI; many nickel atoms were shot at a lead target to make one atom of Darmstadtium. Since it is in the same family as Nickel,Palladium, and Platinum, it has similar properties to these elements. It is a heavy element with atomic weight of 281g. Many things are unknown including its appearance and known things are mostly predicted.

Properties

The melting point and the boiling point of Darmstadtium are unknown. Its density is 20oC g/ml and the electron configuration is Rn5f146d87s2 but they are predicted. Darmstadtium is solid at room temperature and is a very hard metal. Some say that it is a noble gas but others say that it is a transition metal. However,it is in period number 7 and group 10 it is one of the transition metals. There is not much information on Darmstadtium's properties but it is suspected to be a noble metal. It has the same number of valence electrons as Nickel, Palladium, and Platinum.

The major stable oxidation states of this element are +6, +4, and +2. In aqueous solutions in which the solvent is water, the neutral state is assumed as the most stable. Darmstadtium hexafluoride and Platinum hexafluoride have similar properties. They are in the same group(family) and have similar ionization potentials. Also, it has equal Octahedral molecular geometry with PtF6 which shows the form of compounds with six atoms symmetrically arranged. In addition to the Darmstadtium compounds, Darmstadtium carbide and Darmstadtium [tetra-chloride], behave like their lighter homologues (similar chemical compound).[3]

Synthesis

Heavy Ion Accelerator used for bombarding atoms

Darmstadtium was synthesized by S. Hofmann, V. Ninov,and others as the fourth element to be discovered in Gesellschaft Für Schwerionenforschung (GSI). [4]

In a heavy ion accelerator, it was made by fusing lead atoms and nickel atoms with a high energy. A lot of nickel atoms and lead atoms were bombarded to make this element.[2]

They found out that the formula for a single atom of the isotope darmstadtium - 269 as follows: 20882Pb+6228Ni→269110Ds+10n

They did the same series of experiment but used heavier nickel-64 ions. 9 atoms of 271Ds was shown by interaction with noticible daughter known decay properties.

20882Pb+6428Ni→271110Ds+10n [5]

Uses

Darmstadtium has no uses since only small amounts have ever been made. A practical use has not been found. It is only used for research and known to exist between the elements with the atomic numbers 109 and 111.[6]

History

This is Darmstadtium Congress which is located in Darmstadtium

Darmstadtium was discovered mainly by Peter Armbruster and Sigurd Hofmann at GSI(Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung). It was discovered in the Universal Linear Accelerator(UNILAC) by fusing and stimulating nickel and atom, which means that it was artificially discovered. UNILAC is a heavy ion accelerator in GSI which also discovered element number 111, and 112. Billions of nickel atoms were shot at a lead target to create one atom of the Darmstadtium. [7]GSI was credited for the discovery, even though there were three groups that noted Darmstadtium, because GSI was the first that verified the result.

GSI named the elements based on their three digit numbers:0 = nil, 1 = un, 2 = bi, 3 = tri before their real numbers. Darmstadtium was known as ununnilium with the symbol Uun, and element 111, Roentgenium, was called Unununium with the symbol Uuu. Seaaborg pronounced these elements' name as oon-oon nil-i-em and oon-oon oon-i-em to be humorous. Darmstadtium was named after the town of Darmstadtium on August 16, 2013, by IUPAC. Darmstadtium was the fourth element discovered at GSI. From 1981 to 1984, the elements 107 (bohrium), 108 (hassium),and 109 (meitnerium) were discovered and named there. After the discovery of Darmstadtium, elements 111 and 112 were also discovered at GSI.[8]

Video

Here is a video of Darmstadtium

References

  1. Author Unknown. Darmstadtium RSC. Web. Accessed on 7 Oct. 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Steward,Doug. Darmstadtium elements fact Chemicool. Web. 5 Oct. 2012.
  3. Author unknown. Darmstadtium Wikipedia. Web. Accessed on 23 Oct. 2013.
  4. Winter, Mark. Darmstadtium: historical information Web elements. Web. Accessed on 9 Oct. 2013.
  5. Author unknown. Darmstadtium Wikipedia. Web. Accessed on 23 Oct. 2013.
  6. Winter, Mark. Darmstadtium:uses Web elements. Web. accessed on 7 Oct 2013.
  7. Winter, Mark. Darmstadtium: historical information Web elements. Web. Accessed on 23 Oct. 2013.
  8. Author unknown. Darmstadtium and beyond Chemical & engineering news. Web. Accessed on 23 Oct. 2013.