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Cocaine

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Cocaine
Cocaine hcl2.jpg
General
Systematic name [1R-(exo,exo)] -3-(benzoyloxy)

-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]
octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester

Other names Cadillac of drugs, Dama blanca, Charlie
Molecular formula C17H21NO4
SMILES CN1C2CCC1C(C(C2)OC(=O)

C3=CC=CC=C3)C(=O)OC

Molar mass Molar mass::303.353 g/mol
Appearance colorless or white
CAS number CAS number::50-36-2

Cocaine is a popular psychostimulant that was first abstracted from the coca plant in the mid 1850's. Chemist Sigmund Freud investigated and named this drug the magic drug. This drug was strongly abused, even to prescribed patients. Patients with addiction problems to morphine were prescribed cocaine. However, it was sadly discovered that cocaine only increased addiction to both drugs. Cocaine has been found in Harrods, Coca-Cola, tonics, toothache cures, chocolate, and mixed into other foods or beverages. Cocaine has been known to damage and negatively affect the brain and other organs. This drug is illegal in the U.S. for its addictive and its damaging characteristics to the human body.[1] The anesthetic characteristics of cocaine were first introduced and pursued by Vassili von Anrep, in 1880. The drug was first used on patients during ocular surgeries, by Karl Koller. It was popular because of its affected on shutting off pain impulses that are regularly sent to the brain without the drug. The surgical and pharmaceutical world was greatly affected by this drug in new medications and procedures produced. Cocaine helped ease birth pains ointments for hemorrhoids, solutions to calm dentition pains in infants, drops for earaches, and lastly surgeries.[2]

Properties

Cocaine's commonplace form is white crystalline powder. This drug is frequently mixed with cornstarch, tacum powder or another drug. A powder form of cocaine is smoked, which looks like small crystals or rocks.[3] This drug is obtained as crystals or rocks, which alter in size.[4]

Occurrences

Coca plant and Coca leaves

Cocaine is formed by solidifying powdered cocaine in a mixture of water with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate. This mixture is boiled into a solid. The solid is depleted, and shattered into small rocks or crystals. This is the powder form of small cocaine rocks.uses Cocaine comes from the coca leaves of a coca bush. This plant flourishes on slopes of the Andes Mountains in South America. In Peru and Bolivia people chewed these leaves in past history to decrease hunger and fatigue. More commonly today most coca bushes and cocaine are cultivated in Columbia.[5]

Uses

a woman abusing cocaine in powder form, snorting the drug.

The drug known as cocaine or 'blow' was first used by the Incas, in Peru. They used this plant to avoid exhaustion and hunger. After the Spanish invaded Southern territory they were introduced to coca fields and farms created by the Incas. Coca leaves derived from the Coca plant was distributed among workers who tended fields during rest breaks. Spanish Conquistadors proposed coca to Europe. Shakespeare might have smoked cocaine. In the early 1800's the idea that cocaine should be added to foods and beverages was purposed.[6] Cocaine, around 1955 was added to the famous drink Coca Cola, to wines, and eventually medicines. Today Cocaine is attained and stabilized in Colombia. Drug traffickers today deal and transport cocaine into the U.S. for profitable income.[7] About 6,222,000 U.S. residents have encountered and abused the drug in their life span. Popular to teens about 150,000 from 12 to 17 years old commonly use the drug. Lastly, about 1,003,000 people from ages 18 to 25 have also tried the drug themselves. Crack is applied to young and old individuals readily in the U.S.[8] Cocaine has been found in a widespread of different items. In 1816 Harrods were sold which contained cocaine, morphine, syringes and spare needles. This drug was commonly used for stuffed noses or red and sore noses. The over the counter "Ryno's HayFever and Catarrh Remedy" consisted of 99.9 percent pure cocaine.[9] This drug was advertised and sold over the counter until 1914. Commonly used for tonics, toothache cures, patent medicines, and chocolate cocaine tablets.[10]

Coca-cola

Coca-cola's name comes from the two main ingredients which include, coca leaves and kola nuts.Coca-Cola was first introduced in 1886 and still today has coca leaves in its ingredients for flavoring, however the cocaine has been removed in the 1900's.[11] The drug cocaine was taken out and the drink was further refined in 1891. This popular addictive drink that arose in 1885 stirred controversy due to its addictive and negative manner. The amount was cut down in the syrup. Candler, founder of Coca-cola wanted to keep its name in full glory, so he still kept some of his main ingredients in his drink. Coca-cola was not completely separated from cocaine till 1929.[12]

Abuse

Three main ways of cocaine intake are snorting, injecting, and smoking. By powder form cocaine is induced into the bloodstream. The drug can also be injected with a needle, in which the drug is obtained directly through to the bloodstream. Smoking cocaine, includes the vapor form of cocaine being taken into lungs and absorption takes place into the blood stream. Although there are many different ways to intake cocaine, this drug typically lead to the increase of energy, reduced fatigue, and mental alertness.[13]

Fetal affects

A number of affects can occur to not only a pregnant mother but to her child as well. Hypoxia and ischemia can be caused by the drug. Cocaine effects the placenta in the pregnant mother. This negatively effects the baby's circulation and can cause cardiac output. Commonly, woman pregnant abusing cocaine tend to have premature babies with small heads and small bodies. Cocaine can cause a baby to be up to 2500 grams lighter at birth than a normal healthy baby. The negative effects of cocaine intake during pregnancy are evident. Even if the mother is simply nursing or breast feeding her child, the fact that she has cocaine running through her system and providing this to the baby can lead to irritability, trembling, vomiting, diarrhea, affects and seizures in the young child. [14]

Brain affects

Cocaine vigorously becomes controlling to increase of dopamine in the brain. This conflicts with the pleasure and movement in the brain. The blocking of dopamine release in the brain is corrupted. Causing the neurons in the brain to shut off the cycle in which dopamine can be released is closed. Long-term damage occurs in the brain due to cocaine. The reward system and others are affected by this addictive drug. Tolerance of cocaine increases through each use. With repeated use, addiction to the cocaine high also often develops.[15]

References

and Mental Health.