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Cobalt

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Cobalt
Cobalt
General Info
Atomic Symbol Atomic symbol::Co
Atomic Number Atomic number::27
Atomic Weight Atomic weight::58.933195 g/mol
Chemical series Transition Metals
Appearance silverish white, hard,
lustrous and brittle
Sample cobalt.jpg
Group, Period, Block 9, 4, d
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d7
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 15, 2
Electron shell cobalt.png
CAS number CAS number::7440-48-4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density [[Density::8.90 g·cm−3 g/ml]]
Melting point Melting point::1495 °C
Boiling point Boiling point::2927 °C
Isotopes of Cobalt
iso NA half-life DT DE (MeV) DP
56Co syn 77.27 d ε 4.566 56Fe
57Co syn 271.79 d ε 0.836 57Fe
58Co syn 70.86 d ε 2.307 58Fe
59Co 100% 59Co is stable with 32 neutrons.
60Co syn 5.2714 y β - 2.824 60Ni
All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.

Cobalt is an element of the Periodic Table of Elements. It has 27 protons and electrons and 32 neutrons. It is part of group 9 and found in period 4 in the periodic table. It was first discovered by George Brandt, around 1735 to 1739 in Sweden. The origin of the name Cobalt comes from the German word kobald, meaning evil spirit or goblin. It also developed from the Greek word cobalos, meaning mine. Cobalt is a transition metal. [1]

Properties

Element label.jpg

Cobalt has a melting point of 2723 °F and a boiling point of 5301 °F. Its electronegativity is 1.8 and its density is 8.9 g.cm-3 at 20°C. It contains eight isotopes with an atomic mass of 58.9332 g/mol -1. Cobalt is a hard, shiny, and fragile element. Like the elements iron and nickel, cobalt is a magnet and has several other properties that it shares with them. Along with being chemically active, it is insensible to water, maintains consistency in the air, and has the ability to make many compounds. It is the twenty-seventh element in the periodic table. [2]

Occurrences

Cobalt can be found in a number of places around the world. Though not much is obtained by the earth's crust nor by its bodies of water, a huge source of cobalt is in earth's core. The amount of the element in soil can range from about 70 ppm to 0.1 ppm. Mining cobalt is proved to be difficult as it is usually found along with copper and nickel in ores. A couple examples of these ores are cobaltite and erythrite. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, the mainland of China, Zambia, Russia and Australia are all worldwide manufacturers of cobalt. Other countries like Finland, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan produce cobalt as well. [3] Meteorites contain cobalt deposits. Mineral ores of cobalt are located in areas such as Zaire, Morocco and even Canada. 17 tonnes of cobalt are distributed to throughout the world each year. [4]

Uses

Cobalt glass
Cobalt glass balls

Cobalt has a hand in art just as much as it has a hand in engineering. Cobalt is the main ingredient for the color blue. It is also used in creating porcelain, pottery, and stained glass. Aside from that, cobalt is also utilized in making alloys for aircraft engines and steels. It can be formed into magnets and is an accelerator for petroleum and chemical industry products. The most recognized isotopes of cobalt is 60Co, because of its radioactive properties. It is applied in medicine as an agent for treatment. Also, cobalt is used to expose food to radiation so as to preserve the food and protect the public. [5]

Effects in the World

When cobalt is not firmly attached to the soil, it is then spread throughout the earth's atmosphere and makes its way into our air, food, and water. The element is not usually accessible everywhere you look, but we may still become exposed to it. It's helpful to us because cobalt is a substance that resides in vitamin B12 as 1 mg. This is essential to our daily life. Cobalt is used in this treatment because it is needed to handle anemia. On the other hand, cobalt can be a hazard when it is taken into the body in large amounts. Side effects that may result in high intakes of cobalt are vomiting/nausea, trouble with your eyesight or heart, and thyroid damage. Other sicknesses such as asthma and pneumonia are noticed in people who work closely with cobalt. [6]

In the world's environment cobalt is a natural substance that is discovered in rocks, the ground, the air, and in the water. Radioactive isotopes aren't a great threat since they have short lives and do not last very long. Although, too much of cobalt in the ground can cause serious health risks among humans and animals. Even small portions of cobalt can be risky since there is a certain amount needed in order to live. Cobalt is impossible to remove from the environment. [7]

References